Basics on doping » Glossary


Absence of fault or negligence

Demonstrated by the fact that the athlete did not know, did not suspect or could not reasonably have known or suspected even by exercising the utmost vigilance that he had used or had been administered the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

No Fault or Negligence

Demonstration by the athlete that under all the circumstances, and taking into account the criteria for No Fault or negligence, fault or negligence was not significant in relation to the offense.


Administration system and anti-doping management (Anti-Doping Administration and Management System - ADAMS) allows athletes and anti-doping organizations to enter and share data related to doping control and fulfill certain responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code (theCode). ADAMS is an online system based on Internet, which allows limited sharing of data between organizations with a right of access to such data in accordance with the Code.

Doping Control Officer (DCO)

Official agent, trained and authorized by the Anti-Doping Organization who are delegated responsibility for managing in situ phase of sample collection.

Substantial assistance

For the purposes of Article 10.5.3 of the Code, a person providing substantial assistance must (1) fully disclose in a signed written statement all information in its possession in relation to anti-doping rule violations and (2) to fully cooperate during investigation and review of all matters relating to this information, for example by appearing to a hearing if asked by a Doping Organization or hearing panel. In addition, the information provided must be credible and represent an important part of any case prosecuted or, if the case is not prosecuted, there must be a sufficient basis on which a case could rest.


World's anti-doping agency.


[National Anti-Doping Agency].

Preliminary hearing

For the purposes of Article 7.5, summary and expedited hearing before the hearing provided for in Article 8 (Right to a Fair Hearing) that provides the sportsmen with notice and opportunity to be heard in writing or orally.

Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE)

Authorization granted by an Anti-Doping Organization to any athlete with a documented medical condition to enable the use of a substance or method otherwise prohibited.


TUE Committee established by NADA.

World Anti-Doping Code (Code)

It is the core document that provides a framework for policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities, first adopted by WADA on  March 5 2003 and all its subsequent amendments.

Doping Appeal Federal Committee

Committee appointed by the national government or the Olympic committee to hear appeals from decisions of the Anti-Doping Discipline Committee [Unless the CAS preference].

Federal Anti-Doping Disciplinary Committee

Committee appointed by the national government or the National Olympic Committee to hear allegations of violations of these Anti-Doping Rules. [Unless the CAS preference]

National Olympic Committee

Organization recognized as such by the International Olympic Committee. The term National Olympic Committee encompasses all sporting confederation of countries where a national sports federation assume responsibilities, usually the responsibility of a National Olympic Committee in terms of anti-doping.


A single race, match, game or singular athletic contest. For example, a basketball game or the finals of the 100 meters in athletics Olympic Games. For stage races and other athletic contests where prizes are awarded on a daily basis or little by little, the distinction between a Competition and an Event will be as provided in the rules of the International Federation.

Consequences of doping rule violations

Violation by an Athlete or other Person of anti-doping rules may have one or more of the following consequence: (a) Disqualification means the Athlete's results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting consequences, including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes; (b) Suspension which means the Athlete or other Person is barred from participating in any Competition or other activity or funding for a specified period as stipulated in Article 10.9, and (c) Provisional Suspension means that the Athlete or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Competition prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under Article 8 of the Code (Right to a Fair Hearing).

Testing Target

Selection of athletes for athletes controls when individuals or groups of Athletes are selected on a non-random basis at a specific time for control purposes.
Doping Control: All steps and all procedures from control planning until the final decision on appeal including all steps and all intermediate procedures, such as the transmission, laboratory analysis, authorizations use for therapeutic purposes, results management and hearings.

Unannounced Control

Doping Control which takes place with no advance warning to the athlete, and in which he is continuously chaperoned from the moment of notification through Sample provision.


Part of the overall doping control including test distribution planning, Sample collection, handling and transportation of samples to the laboratory.

UNESCO Convention

The International Convention against Doping in Sport, adopted on October 19 2005 by the General Conference of UNESCO at its 33rd session, including all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against doping in sport.

Delegation of NOCs

Any Tunisian Olympic team delegation or any other delegation selected by the Tunisian National Olympic Committee.


Refer to the above consequences of doping violations.

Publicly disclose or publicly report

Disclose or disseminate information to the general public or persons other than those entitled to be notified in accordance with Article 14.

Duration of the event

Period between the beginning and end of an event as established by the organization under whose auspices the event takes place.


Any biological matrix collected during Doping Control.

In competition

Unless otherwise provided in the rules of an International Federation or other relevant Anti-Doping Organization "in competition" means the period commencing twelve hours before a competition in which the athlete must participate and ending at the end of this competition and sample collection process related to this competition.


Official agent trained and authorized by the Anti-Doping Organization to perform specific tasks, including notification of the Athlete selected for Sample collection, accompanying and observing the Athlete until arrival at the anti-doping checkpoint and / or certification and verification of sample collection if the training qualifies him to perform these tasks.


It means altering for an improper purpose or improperly influences a result of an illegitimate way, to intervene in an illegitimate way, creating an obstacle to mislead or engage in fraudulent conduct to alter results or prevent normal procedures to run their course or providing fraudulent information to an Anti-Doping Organization.

National sports federation

National entity, provincial or territorial, managing sport in Tunisia or a part of it and its members, clubs, teams, associations affiliated leagues.

Target Group Testing Pool

Group of athletes identified by each International Federation or National Anti-Doping Organization and every organization that are subject to control in and out of competition within the control plan of the International Federation or National Anti-Doping Organization in question.

Out of competition

Any Doping Control which does not take place within the competition.

Laboratory accredited by WADA

Anti-doping laboratory accredited by WADA in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories, applying analytical procedures and methods aimed at obtaining data showing the detection in urine or in other biological samples, substances listed in the prohibited list, or in some cases, allowing to quantify a substance threshold. WADA is responsible for accrediting and reaccrediting anti-doping laboratories since 2004.

Prohibited List

List identifying the Prohibited Substances and Methods.

Event: A series of individual Competitions conducted together under the aegis of an agency (eg.'s Olympic Games, World Championships, FINA, or Pan American Games).

International event

Event where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, an International Federation, a Major Event Organization, or another international sport organization is acting as lead agency or appoints the technical officials for the event.

National event

A sporting event that is not an international event and which is attended by international athletes and national level athletes.


A compound, group of compounds or parameter (s) organic (s) that indicates the Use of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method.


Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.

Prohibited Method

Any method so described on the Prohibited List.


Individual who has not attained the age of majority under the laws of his country of residence.

National Anti-Doping Organization

The entity or entities designated by each country as the lead authority responsible for the adoption and implementation of anti-doping regulations, the collection of samples, results management and hearings at the national level. This includes any entity which may be designated by several countries as a regional anti-doping organization if the appointment has not been made by the competent public authority, the entity shall be the country's National Olympic Committee or its representative. With regard to these Anti-Doping Rules, NADA will be the designated entity.

Regional Anti-Doping Organization (RADO)

Anti-Doping Organization established by a group of countries to coordinate, manage and carry out the fight against doping in a given region. Development of Anti-Doping  Program aiming to facilitate the creation of such entities to ensure the implementation of anti-doping programs in all parts of the world.

Organizations responsible for major events

Continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multi-sport organization that serve as an international body responsible for sporting events, whether continental, regional or other.


Any athlete or staff member of Athlete.


Person or organization or other entity.

Athlete Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical or paramedical personnel, parent or any other person working with an athlete participating in sports competitions or preparing or who treats or assists him.

Independent Observer Program

Team of observers, under the supervision of WADA, attending the Doping Control process at certain events, which can provide advice in this regard and report their observations.

Adverse Analytical Finding

Report from a laboratory or other entity recognized by WADA in accordance with the International Standard for Laboratories and related technical documents, revealing the presence in a sample of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or use of a prohibited method.

Atypical Finding

Report of a laboratory or other WADA-approved entity for which further investigation is required by the International Standard for Laboratories and related technical documents before an abnormal test result can be established.


Physical possession or factual possession (which shall be found only if the person has exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance / Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance / Method exists). However, if the person does not have exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance / Method or the premises in which the Prohibited Substance / Method is the possession shall only be found if the person knew about the presence of a substance / Prohibited Method and intended to exercise control over it. In addition, there will be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on possession if, prior to receiving notification of a doping violation, the Person has taken concrete action demonstrating that she had never had the intention to be in possession of a Prohibited Substance / Method and abandoned this prior possession by explicitly declaring it to an Anti-Doping Organization. Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by electronic means or otherwise) of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited Method constitutes possession thereof by the person who made the purchase.


Those entities signing the Code and agreeing to comply with, including the International Olympic Committee, International Federations, International Paralympic Committee, National Olympic Committees, National Paralympic Committees, the organizations responsible for major sports events, national Anti-Doping organizations, and WADA.

Individual sport

Any sport that is not a team sport.


Any person who participates in sport at the international level (as meant by each International Federation) or national level (as meant by each of the national anti-doping organizations including persons in the target group of athletes submitted to controls) as well as any other competitor in sport who is otherwise under the jurisdiction of any Signatory or other sports organization accepting the Code. All provisions of the Code, including, for example with regard to controls and authorizations for therapeutic use, must be applied to national and international level competition. Some national anti-doping organizations may decide to monitor current or future competitors of national level and implement anti-doping rules to them. Thus, a country could elect to test recreational-level competitors but not require permission to use for therapeutic or information on localization. The same organization responsible for organizing major events for an event only part of competitors could elect to test the competitors but not require permission to use for therapeutic or information on localization. For the purposes of Article 2.8 (Administration or Attempted administration of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method) and for purposes of anti-doping information and education, any person participating in a sport under a signatory government or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete.

International-Level Athlete

Sportsman designated by one or more International Federations as part of the Testing Pool target group.

National-level athlete

Sportsman other than international level athlete, who is appointed by the ANAD as part of the ANAD's testing target group.


Any substance so described on the Prohibited List.


See above for Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule violations.

Temporary Suspension

See above Consequences of anti-doping violations.


Court of Arbitration for Sport.

International Standard

Standard adopted by WADA in support of the Code. Compliance with an International Standard (as opposed to other standards, practices or procedures) is sufficient to conclude that the procedures envisaged in the International Standard were performed properly. International standards include technical papers published in accordance with their provisions.


Willful misconduct constitutes an important step in a planned action aimed at the anti-doping rule violation. However, there will be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an attempt, if the person renounces the attempt before being surprised by a third party not involved in the attempt.


Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing a third of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (either physically or by electronic or other means) by an Athlete Support Personnel of the Athlete or other person under an anti-doping organization. However, this definition does not include the actions of medical staff carried out in good time and on a Prohibited Substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or justifiable. It does not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in-competition testing, unless all the circumstances demonstrate such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes.


Utilization, application, ingestion, injection or consumption by any means of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method.

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